Man in everyday life surrounds practical and aesthetically looking objects. It depends on things which possesses and uses not only him to be functional, but he fulfilled his expectations also in order to their appearances. Unfortunately not always given object was been possible to be obtained from materials which possess decorative properties. During the development of material engineering came into being the surface engineering, that includes all scientific and technical aspects of production, investigation and applying the superficial layers, which possess better than basic proprieties, mainly anticorrosive, anti-fatigue, anti-abrasive and decorative.
In last years the progress of science in the field of plastic materials permits on more and more different their use. Materials these are light, plastic and what follows it they are easy processed and formed as well as they are corrosion proof. Expensive in production metals were replaced by plastics, which in aim of assimilation to them are covered with the coat simulating the given metal.
Among methods of production of superficial layers, only three of them are suitable to use to cover the plastic materials. Developing process of vacuums metallization deserves on special attention.
During the vacuum metallization one can observe three phases of the process of coating manufacturing:
a) metal evaporation, it means the process of changing the state of a metal (from solid, through liquid into gas one),
b) diffusion of a metal vapor from the source of evaporation to the coating product or the wall of a vacuum chamber,
c) condensing of a metal vapor on the product surface and creating the continuous metal layer.
The process of vacuum metallization must be conducted in separate rooms. Also the particular departments should be isolated. On the other hand the process of metallization could be conducted using next equipment:
a) equipment for vacuum generation and it maintaining (and also it improving),
b) proper vacuum chambers for metallizing,
c) measuring apparatus for controlling the vacuum, the thickness of a metal layer and for investigation its features (e.g. resistance).
The process of vacuum metallization includes following operations and activities:
a) cleaning (in emulsified bathes or in dissolvents),
b) drying and placing products on the plating racks,
c) ground lacquering and surface tightening and second drying,
e) painting with proper lacquer and drying,
f) quality control.