The prototype F1 first flew in 1966. The F1C all-weather interceptor reached l'Armee de l'Air units in 1973, and when production ended in 1992, some 762 aircraft of all versions had been built.
F1 variants follow a similar designation system applied to earlier Mirage IIIs and include the F1A simplified for day attack, F1B and F1D dual-control trainers, multi-role Mirage F1E, F1CR multi-sensor reconnaissance platform and F1C-200 with fixed IFR probe. The arrival of the Mirage 2000 saw the conversion of surplus F1C airframes to F1CT standard as tactical fighter-bombers.
The F1 remained in widespread service in 2001. France operates two squadrons each of F1CRs and F1CTs, a conversion unit equipped with trainers and a small detachment of F1C interceptors for the defense of Djibouti. Other operators comprise Greece, Iraq, Jordar, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, and Spain. Jordan's elderly F1CJ/EJs are being replaced by F-16s. Iraq was the largest export customer, acquiring 108 F1EQs to various standards. The remaining significant operator is Spain, whose force of F1CE/F1EEs has been augmented by 12 ex-Qatari F1EDA/DDAs.