The AK-630 is a Soviet fully automatic naval six-barreled 30 mm Gatling gun used to protect naval vessels from incoming AShMs like the Harpoon and Exocet. The gun fires HE-FRAG incendiaries or fragmentation tracer projectiles.
The gun can be laid remotely from the radar control system and target tracker. The maximum rate of fire is 5000 rounds/min while the muzzle velocity is 880 meters per second. The gun is provided with an automatic belt feed and requires a crew of one. The range is up to 4000 meters for low flying anti-ship missiles and 5000 meters for light surface targets. The gun is equipped with radar and television detection & tracking. It is mounted in an enclosed automatic turret and directed by radar and television detection and tracking. The system's primary purpose is defense against anti-ship missiles and other precision guided weapons.
However it can also be employed against fixed/rotary wing aircraft, ships and other small craft, coastal targets, and floating mines. The AK-630 was one of the first ever CIWS systems; when it was developed, there were no Phalanx, DARDO or Goalkeeper systems, however, the long development time of the AK-630 partially negated this advantage. Once made operational, this weapon system was rapidly adopted; up to 8 units installed in every new Soviet warship (from mine-hunters to aircraft carriers), with hundreds produced in total.
The complete weapon system is called A-213-Vympel-A, which comprises the AK-630M Gun Mount, MR-123-02 Fire Control Radar System, and SP-521 Electrical-Optical Tracker. A single MP-123 radar system can simultaneously control two guns, either two 30 mm gun mounts, or two 57 mm gun mounts, or one 30 mm gun and one 57 mm gun. The radar system can engage aerial and surface targets at 4 km and 5 km respectively. The electro-optical system can detect MiG-21 sized aerial target 7 km away while torpedo boat sized surface targets can be detected at 70 km away. Features include surveillance and tracking modes, high jamming immunity, laser range finder and TV optical sight. It is in operation on almost all Russian Navy ships from fast attack boats to the huge Kirov Battlecruiser.
The gun mount is fully automated, however it can be remotely controlled by an operator from either the control console or via a remotely mounted gunsight. It has a higher firing rate than both the Goalkeeper and Phalanx (Block 1 and older) CIWS systems. Combined with the fact that they are often mounted in pairs, with as many as 4 pairs mounted on the larger ships, providing Russian ships with an effective point defence system. However like all Gatling gun-based CIWS they suffer from short engagement times and the need for multiple volleys to effectively eradicate a threat.